Machining ; It is the process of giving the desired geometric shape by removing chips of different shapes and sizes from the piece.
Machining ; It is the process of giving the desired geometric shape by removing chips of different shapes and sizes from the piece, by referring to the projected technical drawing of a designed workpiece in accordance with the standards. This process should be done by proper tools and machines. With the integration and movement of tools, machines and workpieces to each other desired geometries are obtained in various ways with different processes. These processes are mainly :
- Lapping etc.
Machining entered our lives with the wood industry in the early 18th century. In the 19th century, when the iron forming process was done with the manual power of blacksmiths, machining gradually began to show itself. The machining industry, which showed a great development in the 20th century, developed further over time and took its current form.
In the previous years, machining technologies were mainly conventional i.e. human-based. This caused running into problems in terms of obtaining the desired shape. In the following years, CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machines are invented. CNC machines are the machining devices which are controlled by numerically by computers. CNC machines give the desired shape to the workpiece by following the instructions programmed with coordinate codes. This codes are prepared according to CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) from CAD (Computer Aided drawing) data. These codes are named as G-codes in the industry. With the help of G-codes, cutting tools are moved in the desired way according to final shape of the workpiece. Since the dependency on the operator is minimized during this process, it enables precise production.
Although it seems that these machines are fully automatic and capable of giving the final exact shape of the part, the real life case scenario is not like that. Most of the time, depends on the tolerance range of the part, workpiece is obtained between plus and minus dimensions according to precision of the process. The more process is precise, the longer time operation lasts.
As in everything, machining has advantages and disadvantages which will be mentioned in the following sections :
- Being accurate
- Time taken to perform a job is very less
- Safe to operate
- Required operators to operate a machine are reduced
- No possibility of human error during operation
- Even very complex designs can also be made
- Could be run for all 24 hours a day
- Being costly
- Trained operator is required to operate the machine
- In case of breakdown a highly skilled professional is required to solve the problem
There are various materials which can be machined in CNC machines. Materials should be selected based on the design requirements of the project. Generally, unless strength of the material is essential, softer materials are preferred in order to machine easily because the harder is material, the more challenging the machine the part. The following materials are the ones used commonly in machining industry :
- Stainless Steel
- Basic Plastics
- Engineered Plastics
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